The Barbary Treaties...
These refer to several treaties between the United States of America and the semi-autonomous North African city-states of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, known collectively as the Barbary States.
The Treaty of Tripoli (1796)
(Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the United States of America and the Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary) was the first treaty concluded between the United States and Tripolitania, signed at Tripoli on November 4, 1796, and at Algiers (for a third-party witness) on January 3, 1797. It was submitted to the Senate by President John Adams, receiving ratification unanimously from the U.S. Senate on June 7, 1797, and signed by Adams, taking effect as the law of the land on June 10, 1797.
The treaty was a routine diplomatic agreement and was later replaced. It has attracted attention in recent decades because of a clause stating that "the Government of the United States of America is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion."
Treaty with Tunis (1797)
The Treaty with Tunis was signed on August 28, 1797, between the United States of America and the "Barbary State" of Tunis, nominally part of the Ottoman Empire. As the treaty provided in
There shall be a perpetual and constant peace between the United States of America and the magnificent Pasha, Bey of Tunis, and also a permanent friendship, which shall more and more increase.
The treaty is notable because of its religious language in the opening statement, namely recognizing the President of the United States of America as "the most distinguished among those who profess the religion of the Messiah, of whom may the end be happy. "Because of the presence of this clause, W.C. Anderson makes the argument that Christianity is adopted by this treaty.
The treaty provided protection to Americans at a cost higher than the Treaty of Tripoli imposed.
Treaty with Tripoli (1805)
The First Barbary War (1801–1805), also known as the Tripolitanian War and the Barbary Coast War, was the first of two Barbary Wars between the United States and the four North African states known collectively as the "Barbary States". Three of these were nominal provinces of the Ottoman Empire, but in practice autonomous: Tripoli, Algiers, and Tunis. The fourth was the independent Sultanate of Morocco.The cause of the war was pirates from the Barbary States seizing American merchant ships and holding the crews for ransom, demanding the U.S. pay tribute to the Barbary rulers. United States President Thomas Jefferson refused to pay this tribute. It was the first military action in foreign lands and seas authorized by the U.S. Congress.
Treaty with Algeria (1815) The Treaty with Algiers was signed on June 30, 1815, between the United States of America and the "Barbary State" of Algiers, nominally part of the Ottoman Empire. As the treaty provided in Article One:
There shall be from the Conclusion of this treaty, a firm inviolable and universal peace and friendship between the President and Citizens of the United States of America on the one part, and the Dey and Subjects of the Regency of Algiers in Barbary, on the other, made by the free consent of both parties and upon the terms of the most favored nations; and if either party shall hereafter grant to any other nation, any particular favor or privilege in navigation or Commerce it shall immediately become common to the other party, freely when freely it is granted to such other nation; but when the grant is conditional, it shall be at the option of the contracting parties to accept, alter, or reject such conditions, in such manner as shall be most conducive to their respective interests.
It was ratified by the United States Congress on December 26, 1815.
Treaty with Tunis (1824)
The Treaty with Tunis was signed on February 24, 1824 (24 Ramada II, A. H. 1239), between the United States of America and the "Barbary State" of Tunis, nominally part of the Ottoman Empire.
Ratified by the United States between
January 13 and 21, 1825
Treaty with Morocco (1836)
The Treaty with Morocco was signed on September 16, 1836 (3 Jumada II, A.H. :1252), between the United States of America and the "Barbary State" of Morocco.
Submitted to the Senate December 26, 1836. (Message of December 20, 1836.) Resolution of advice and consent January 17, 1837. Ratified by the United States
January 28, 1837.